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2007年全国医学博士外语统一考试英语试题-由旭晨考博整理

2007年全国医学博士外语统一考试英语试题

Paper One
Part I  Listening  Comprehension(30%)
Section A
Directions: In this section you will hear fifteen short conversations between two speakers. At the end of each conversation, you will hear a question about what is said. The question will be read only once. After you hear the question, read the four possible answers                marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on                the ANSWER SHEET.
Now let’ s begin with question Number 1.
1.  A. To do some experiments,               B. To attend a class.
C. To review his lessons.                  D. To take a test.
2.  A. In a hotel.      B. In the hospital.      C. In the prison.     D. At the airport.
3.  A. He got an ulcer in his stomach.          B. He got hurt in the soccer game.
C. He will be discharged soon.             D. He got his tumor removed.
4.  A. She told a lie so as not to hurt Jimmy.    B. She left because she had a headache.
C. She hurt Jimmy by telling him a lie.      D. She slept off her headache.
5.  A. His new car is not fast enough.
B. His new car moves very fast.
C. His new car is a real bargain.
D. His new car is somewhat of a financial burden.
6.  A. Get more time to relax.                B. Take some tranquilizers.
C. Seek a second opinion.                D. Avoid her responsibilities.
7.  A. He got a headache while establishing the institute.
B. He had a hard time getting the institute started.
C. Everything was OK at the beginning.
D. Avoid her responsibilities.
8.  A. Excited.      B. Frustrated.         C. Annoyed.         D. Relieved.
9.  A. Each class lasts an hour.
B. The class is meeting in an hour and a half.
C. The class meets four hours and a half per week.
D. The class meets for half an hour three times a week.
10.  A. The woman was a good skier.          B. The woman couldn’t ski.
C. The woman didn’ t intend to go skiing.    D. The woman didn’ t like Swiss.
11.  A. She’s an insurance agent.              B. She’s an insurance client.
C. She’s a bank clerk.                    D. She’s a driver.
12. A. He tripped over some crutches.           B. He had rheumatism in his legs.
C. He sprained his foot.                   D. He broke his leg.
13. A. The vacation is almost gone.             B. The vacation has just started.
C. They are prepared for the new semester.    
D. They can’ t wait for the new semester.
14. A. She was knocked down by a feather.       B. She is shamed of Larry.
C. She was really surprised.                D. She was proud of Larry.
15. A. To visit his son.                       B. To perform an operation.
C. To have an operation.                  D. To send his son for an operation.
Section B
Directions: In this section you will hear three passages. After each one, you will hear five questions. After each question, read the four possible answers marked A, B, C and D.               Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.
Passage One
16. A. A pharmacist.     B. A visitor.       C. A physician.    D. A dieter.
17. A. Cough.          B. Diarrhea.       C. Headache.      D. Stomach upset.
18. A.Pain-killers.     B.Cough syrup.   C. Antidiarrheas.     D. Indigestion tablets.
19. A. The cold weather.                     B. Tiredness caused by traveling.
C. The strange food he had eaten.           D. The greasy food he had eaten.
20. A. Take the medicine from the woman.       B. Go to see a specialist.
C. Stop eating and drinking for a few days.    D. Stay in bed for a couple of days.
Passage Two
21. A. Headaches.                           B. Insomnia.
C. Respiratory problems.                  D. Digestive problems.
22. A. On Monday in Edinburgh.               B. On Wednesday in Edinburgh.
C. On Monday at Staffordshire University.  
D. On Wednesday at Staffordshire University.
23. A. 94.         B. 41.                C. 130.              D. 135.
24. A. The subjects were asked to write of their free will.
B. The subjects were asked to write in a systematic way.
C. The subjects were asked to say how often they made entries.
D. The subjects were asked if they had written down anything traumatic.
25. A. The diarists who write of their free will.
B. The diarists who were students at Staffordshire University.
C. The diarists who had written about trauma.
D. The non-diarists who were susceptible to headaches.
Passage Three
26. A. A brief history of British pubs.
B. Beer--the British national drink.
C. Various attempts made to curb drinking in Britain.
D. The frustrating opening and closing hours of British pubs.
27. A. As early as 659 AD.                       B. After 659 AD.
C. Before the Roman invasion.                D. After the Roman invasion.
28. A. To restrict drinking hours.
B. To restrict travelers to certain drinks.
C. To encourage the locals to drink in other towns,
D. To encourage inns to lodge various kinds of people.
29. A. People were better off.
B. The government failed to persuade people from drinking.
 C. There appeared a new cheap drink.
D. Drinkers had found various ways to get around the laws.
30. A. The licensing hours have been extended.
B. Old people are not allowed to drink in pubs.
C. Children are not allowed yet to drink in pubs.
D. Big changes have taken place in pubs.
Part II  Vocabulary( 10% )
Section A
Directions: In this section all the sentences are incomplete. Four words or phrases, marked A, B, C and D, are given beneath each of them. You are to choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Then, mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET.
31. The doctor gave him an injection in order to____________ the pain.
A. alleviate     B. aggregate          C. abolish           D. allocate
32. His broken arm healed well, but he died of the pneumonia which followed as a_____.
A. complement    B. compliment      C. complexion       D. complication
33. Unfortunately, our vacation plans ________on account of transport strikes.
A. fell back       B. fell through      C. fell upon         D. fell to
34. The ________ climate of Hawall attracts visitors from all over the world every year.
A. genial         B. frigid           C. genuine           D. foul
35. This is the ________ in which the organism lives most effectively.
A. optimum       B. option          C. ordeal            D. orbit
36. The doctor suggests that a good holiday in the country should______ him_______ nicely after his operation.
A. set.., out        B. set.., up          C. set.., off         D. set.., aside
37. His behavior was so _______ that even the merciful people could not forgive him.
A. unique   B. unconventional            C. brutal           D. brilliant
38. _________ to your present job until you can get a better one.
A. Hang about     B. Hang back         C. Hang behind      D. Hang on
39. Suffering from his leg illness, Tom is very _________ nowadays.
A. emaciated     B. eligible            C. elastic            D. exceptional
40. He saved some money for artistic ____________ such as fine paintings.
A. donations      B. profits             C. luxuries          D. lures
Section B
Directions: Each of the following sentences has a word or phrase underlined. There are four words or phrases beneath each sentence. Choose the word or phrase which can best keep the meaning of the original sentence if it is substituted for the underlined part. Mark your               answer on the ANSWER SHEET.
41. It has been proved that the chemical is lethal to rats but safe for cattle.
A. fatal            B. reactive            C. unique           D. vital
42. To their surprise, she has been nominated as candidate for the Presidency.
A. recognized      B. defined            C. appointed         D. promoted
43. We cannot look down upon our opponent, who is an experienced swimmer.
A. player          B. competitor         C. referee            D. partner
44. She is regarded as a good nurse in that she attends to patients without any complaint.
A. sees through     B. looks over         C. takes in          D. cares for
45. It is well known that the minimum penalty for this crime is 2 years’ imprisonment.
A. conviction      B. span            C. mercy            D. punishment
46. The whole area of the national and local governments tried to wipe out rats to prevent the spread of disease.
A. exterminate    B. dominate        C. determinate       D. contaminate
47. All the students are afraid of him since he is always severe with them.
A. vigorous       B. rigorous         C. vigilant           D. rigid
48. The biggest engineering project that they undertook was encumbered by lack of funds.
A. cancelled       B. condensed       C. hampered         D. haunted
49. In order to be a successful diplomat you must be enthusiastic and magnetic.
A. arrogant        B. industrious         C. zealous           D. attractive
50. He is successful as a doctor because of his dynamic personality, he seems to have unlimited energy.
A. meticulous      B. vigorous           C. aggressive        D. arbitrary
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Part III  Cloze( 10 % )
Directions: In the section there is a passage with ten numbered blanks. For each blank, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D . Choose the best answer and mark the letter of               your choice on ANSWER SHEET.
Many Canadians enjoy the luxury of a large amount of living space. Canada is vast, and the homes are large according to the standards of mans countries. Even   51    inner cities do not reach the extremes found in other parts of world.
Canadians appreciate the space and value their privacy. Since families are generally small, many Canadian children enjoy the luxury of their own bedroom. Having more than one bathroom in a house is also considered a modem   52.
Many rooms in Canadian homes have specialized functions. Family rooms" are popular features in modem houses; these are   53  , "living moms" since many hying rooms have become reserved for entertaining. Some homes have formal and informal dining areas.  54
Recreational homes are also popular   55  Canadians. Some Canadians own summer homes, cottages, or camps. These may   56   from a small one-mom cabin to a luxurious building that rivals the comforts of the regular residence. Some cottages are winterized for year-round use. Cottages offer people the chance to "get away from it all." They are so populate that summer weekend traffic jams are common, especially in large cities such as Toronto, where the number of people leaving town on Friday night and returning Sunday night   57   the highways for hours.
Sometimes, living in Canada means not only having privacy, but also being isolated. Mobility has become a part of modem life; people often do not live in one plate long enough to   58   to know their neighbors. Tenants live their own lives in their apartments or town houses. Even in private residential areas, where there is some   59  , neighborhood life is not as dose-knit as it once was. There seems to be   60  of a communal spirit. Life today is so hectic that there is often little time.
51. A. spacious       B. crowded           C. remote           D.deserted
52. A. convenience     B. comfort          C. architecture         D. taste
53. A. in common      B. in particular        C. in chief             D. in fact
54. A. either                 B. as well            C. in mm              D. instead
55. A. to                    B. in                 C. with                D. for
56. A. transform        B. convert            C. range             D.
57. A. blocks         B. halts               C. cuts off             D. keeps off
58. A. become        B. come               C. get                         D. grow
59. A. stability               B. mobility          C. reality              D. tranquility
60. A. hit            B. much              C. mine               D. less
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Part IV  Reading Comprehension (30% )
Directions: In this part there are six passages, each of which is followed by five questions. For each question there are four possible answers marked A. B. C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.
Passage One
The popular idea that classical music can improve your maths is falling from favor. New experiments have failed to support the widely publicized finding that Mozart’s music promotes mathematical thinking.
Researchers reported six years ago that listening to Mozart brings about short-temporal reasoning, the type of thinking used in maths. Gordon Shaw of the University of California at Irvine and Frances Rauscher of the University of Wisconsin in Oshkosh had asked students to perform spatial tasks such as imagining how a piece of paper would look if it were folded and cut in a certain pat-tern.
Some of the students then listened to a Mozart sonata and took the test again. The performance of the Mozart group improved, Shaw found. He reasoned that listening to Mozart increases the number of connections between neurons.
But Kenneth Steele of Appalachian State University in North Carolina learnt that other studies failed to find this effect. He decided to repeat one of Shaw’ s experiments to see for himself.
Steele divided 125 students into three groups and tested their abilities to work out how paper would look if cut and folded. One group listened to Mozart, another listened to a piece by Philip Glass and the third did not listen to anything. Then the students took the test again.
No group showed any statistically significant improvement in their abilities. Steele concludes that the Mozart effect doesn’ t exist. "It’ s about as unproven and as unsupported as you can get," he says.
Shaw, however, defends his study. One reason he gives is that people who perform poorly in the initial test get the greatest boost from Mozart, but Steele didn’ t separate his students into groups based on ability. "We’ re still at the stage where it needs to be examined," Shaw says. "I suspect that the more we understand the neurobiology, the more we’ 11 be able to design tests that give a robust effect."
61. It has been recently found out that________.
A. Mozart had an aptitude of music because of his mathematical thinking
B. classical music cannot be expected to improve one’s math
C. the effects of music on health are widely recognized
D. music favors one’s mathematical thinking
62. Which of the following pairs, according to the widely publicized finding, is connected?
A. Paper cutting and spatial thinking.
B. The nature of a task and the type of thinking.
C. Classical music and mathematical performance.
D. Mathematical thinking and spatial-temporal reasoning.
63. In Shaw’ s test, the students would most probably__________.
A. draw the image of the cut paper
B. improve their mathematical thinking
C. have the idea about classical music confirmed
D. increase the number of neurons in their brains
64. From Steele’ s experiment we can say that__________.
A. his hypothesis did not get proven and supported
B. it was much more complicated than Shaw’ s
C. the results were statistically significant
D. Shaw’ s results were not repeatable
65. Shaw is critical of__________.
A. Steele’ s results presented at a wrong stage    
B. Steele’ s wrong selection of the tests
C. Steele’ s ignorance of neurobiology           D. Steele’s test design
Passage Two
Long-suffering couples take heart. There is a good reason for those endless arguments in the front of the car: men and women use different parts of the brain when they try to find their way a-round, suggesting that the strategies they use might also be completely different.
Matthias Riepe and his colleagues at the University of Ulm in Germany asked 24 healthy volunteers-half of them men, half women--to find their way out of three virtual-reality mazes displayed on video goggles. Meanwhile, the researchers monitored the volunteers’ brain activity using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. This showed that men and women called on strikingly different brain areas to complete the task. "I didn’ t expect it to be so dramatic," says Riepe.
Previous studies have been shown that women rely mainly on landmarks to find their way. Men use these cues too, but they also use geometric cues, such as the angle and shape of a wall or a corner. Such studies also suggest that men navigate their way out of unfamiliar spaces more quickly, as Riepe found in his study, too.
Riepe discovered that both men and women used parts of the parietal cortex towards the top of the brain, the right side of the hippocampus and a few other well-established areas to find their way out. Neuroscientists think that the parietal regions help translate what the eves see into information about where the body is in space, while the hippocampal region helps process how objects are arranged.
But other regions seemed to be exclusively male or female. The men engaged the left side of their hippocampus, which the researchers say could help with assessing geometry, or remembering whether they have already visited a location. The women, by contrast, recruited their right frontal cortex. Riepe says this may indicate that they were using their "working memory" , trying to keep in mind the landmarks they had passed.
"It fits very well with the animal studies." says Rielpe. He points out that there seem to be similar differences in rats. For example, damage to the frontal lobe will impair a female’ s sense of direction, but not a male’ s.
66. The studies on the driving issue have evolved___________.
A. from the car to the driver
B. from the reality to the virtual-reality
C. from the physical cues to the parts of the brain
D. from the cues of navigation to the strategies of
67. The different parts of the brain men and women use to find their way around, according to the passage, refer to___________.
A. the left side of the hippocampus and the right frontal cortex
B. the right and left side of their hippocampuses respectively
C. the right and left hemisphere of their brains respectively
D. the parietal cortex and the hippocampus as a whole
68. The part of the brain women use may help explain why they_______.
A. use geometric cues to navigate         
B. have a better memory than men
C. rely mainly on landmarks to find their ways
D. behave less aggressively than men in driving
69. The reason for the differences in the sexes, according to Riepe, could be________.
A. the environmental factor                    B. the psychological factor
C. the innate factor                           D. all of the above
70. Which one of the following questions did the studies answer?
A. How do women and men drive differently?
B. How can we detect the brain activities during driving?
C. Why do men and women argue over which route to take?
D. Why does the damage to the frontal lobe impair the sense of direction?
Passage Three
Work has left you frazzled. Your legs ache when you get back from the gym don’ t pop those aspirins just yet think hot springs. Cranking up a hot tub and hopping in is a natural remedy that can provide significant relief from physical pain and stress.
There are more than three million home spas in the U.S. today. There are numerous reasons spas have made the move from the decks of Hollywood producers to the back yards of middle America. Spas help reduce the effect of stress on your body, assist in muscle recovery after the stress of exercise, and help heal muscles near arthritic joints.
There are three elements to hydrotherapy that, in tandem, provide these healing effects on the body: heat, buoyancy, and motion. When you exercise, your muscles develop thousands of microscopic tears which result in painful lactic acid build-up in the muscle tissue. Hydrotherapy’ s motion and warmth cause blood vessels to dilate, lowering blood pressure and speeding the flow of oxy-gen, Endorphins, and cell-repairing nutrients to injured muscles. Additionally, buoyancy of the water reduces the strain on your knees and joints which allow the surrounding muscles to relax. This can be of crucial help to arthritis suffers, because when joints are inflamed, the surrounding muscles become tense to protect them. Relaxing in a spa then makes your muscles more limber and reduces the pain. Water’ s healing potential has long been known.
We don’ t tend to associate intelligence with our bodies, yet as Thomas Edison said. "Great ideas originate in the muscles." Radical psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich believed that many of us inhibit or deny impulses, feelings, traumas, and stresses by tightening our muscles and creating a kind of "body armor." He felt that as you cut off the source of pain, you also cut off the source of pleasure. By loosening body armor, by letting muscles relax, you can return to a feeling of flow and creativity.
Few things can relax the body more than a home spa. And a relaxed body leads to a relaxed mind. There is no better place to start relaxing than an hour in your home hot springs.
71. To begin with, what does the author insist we avoid doing?
A. Undergoing physical pain and stress.       B. Taking aspirin tablets.
C. Going to the gym.                      D. Relaxing in a spa.
72. What does the second sentence in the second paragraph implies?
A. The origin of spas.
B. The popularity of hot springs.
C. The flux of people to mid America.
D. The spas as a luxury only for the rich.
73. After the stress of exercise, the injured muscles________.
A. will lead to arthritis
B. contain plenty of microscopic tears
C. can cause blood pressure to decline
D. will boost the production of cell-repairing nutrients
74. The author contends that our creativity________.
A. can be enforced by the "body armor"
B. does not occur in mind but in the muscles
C. can be hampered with our muscles tightened
D. is good only when we are free of mental and physical
75. Which of the following can be the best rifle for the passage?
A. Spas, the Best Relaxation.                B. A Brief History of Spas.
C. Spa Resorts in the USA.                  D. Soak Away Stress.
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Passage Four
Convincing the public to follow health advice can be tough and time-consuming. This may be why changes to health messages are often fiercely resisted by those whose job is to get the advice across. So, for example, the suggestion that smokers who cannot quit should reduce their exposure to harm by switching to chewing tobacco met with extreme opposition.
A still more ferocious debate is emerging over the health impact of sunshine. For the past 20 years, advice on sunlight has come from dermatologists who rightly warn people to cover up when they venture outside for fear of developing skin cancer. But evidence from researchers in other fields now suggests that short periods in the sun without protection sometimes as little as a few minutes a day--can prevent most other major forms of cancer.
This surprising conclusion stems from findings that vitamin D, which is made by skin cells ex-posed to the sun’ s ultraviolet rays, is a potent anti-cancer agent. The researchers who made this discovery are eager to be heard. But their message is about as welcome as a bad rash, particularly in countries such as Australia and the US where fair-skinned immigrants living at Mediterranean latitudes have made skin cancer a huge problem.
The American Academy of Dermatology argues that advocating one carcinogen--UV radiation--to protect against other forms of cancer is dangerous and misleading. If people need more vita-min D, they should take a multivitamin or drink milk fortified with it, says the academy. Unfortunately, the solution is not as simple as that. Critics also argue that the protective effect of sunlight is not yet proved. While this may be true, the evidence is very suggestive. The case is built on several studies that bring together cellular biology, biochemistry and epidemiology.
And all the criticism of this theory counts for nothing if, as some of its advocates, suggest, the number of people dying for lack of sunlight is four times as high as those dying from skin cancer. At the same time, those advocates must not overstate their case. Everyone wants to save as many lives as they can.
What we need now is for national medical research bodies and cancer research organizations to investigate the relative risks and benefits of sunshine. This will almost certainly mean more epidemiological work, which should start as soon as possible. As for the public: give them the facts, including risk estimates for short periods in the sun--and for covering up. It is patronizing( 施恩于人的) to assume that people cannot deal with complex messages.
What we definitely do not want is a war of words between groups with polarized views, and no prospect of the issue being resolved. That way will only lead to confusion, distrust of doctors and more unnecessary deaths.
76. According to the first two paragraphs, the problem seems to be that the public_______.
A. cannot be reached by health messages   B. is torn between two health messages
C. never trust those health researchers     D. are divided over health problems
77. The recent opposition goes to_______.
A. the protective value of sunshine
B. the cancer-causing effect of sunshine
C. the debate over the health impact of sunshine
D. the two controversial messages about skin cancer
78. According to the critics, the health impact of sunshine________.
A. will be epidemiologically proved
B. is misleading the public altogether
C. merits a comprehensive investigation
D. can be easily addressed with a simple solution
79. The author implies that health messages should be made easy__________.
A. to debate      B. to swallow         C. to estimate        D. to publicize
80. As for the issue, the author suggests that the public_________.
A. decide on their own how much sunshine is too much
B. avoid unnecessary deaths due to complex messages
C. be provided with reliable and practicable messages
D. facilitate the understanding of health messages
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Passage Five
 I make my way down the three chilly blocks to an old diner on Commercial Street. I am meeting a new friend for lunch. I’ ve never been here before: this is not my part of town. And so I arrive early, to sit in an old wooden booth and learn what I can about the place.
 They call it Katie’ s Kitchen. One hundred years ago, it was a bar. The barstools remain, but through community donations, it’ s now a respectable restaurant.  The hostess, casher, and waiters are residents of a nearby hotel for the transient and unemployed and work here to gain dignity and job skills. Both the hotel and restaurant are nm by Sister L, a nun with a heart and a great deal of business sense.
 My new friend arrives. He works down the street, in a clinic for indigent(贫穷的 ) persons; he knows these people. The workers and many of the clients seem to know him too, for I see warmth and proud smiles on their faces as he greets them. Behind him a few nameless souls wander in from the street in a swirl of December wind.
 I focus on our waitress. A pretty girl of perhaps 18 years. She is all smiles and grace. I wonder for a moment why she’ s here--what her story is: what her dreams are; whether she is raising children on her own. But I cannot hold the thought, for she reminds me of another waitress at my favorite coffee shop--a college student with a bright future.
 Some time later, I finish my soup and sandwich a good meal made better because of the smile of the girl who served it. I wipe my mouth and go to pay Eight dollars and sixty-four cents, for two. To our embarrassment, my friend and I discover that neither of us has cash and my credit card is not good here. We sheepishly approach Sister L who smiles and takes my bill. "It’ s okay," she says. "We’ 11 buy your lunch. It’ 11 be our pleasure.
Slowly, I leave the world of the diner. Back at the hospital where I work, my boss laments our financial woes. "We’ re really tight," he says. "The executive committee tells me we may not even have enough money to build the new critical care wing this year." He frowns, hesitates, then adds," It’ s flu season, though, and perhaps by seeing patients in person rather than tufting so many over the phone, we’ 11 recoup some of our losses. ‘
It’ s budget time, and I know that this means our grafts( 免费的) fitness center memberships may be cancelled. We’ re in a tough bind.
Three streets away, a tattered man in a throwaway overcoat sits shivering in the diner. Sister L slowly fills his cup full of hot coffee. Holding the cup with trembling hands, he stares deeply into its dark center. There is healing in its rising steam.
81. The doctor in the story enters a restaurant which__________.
A. has a one-hundred-year old bar         
B. has won a reputation for its management
C. performs charities among the immigrants 
D. serves such respectable people as doctors
82. He happens to know that his new friend_______.
A. has a great deal of business sense          B. is popular wherever he goes
C. works as a clinical doctor                D. is a respectable person
83. What is it that he enjoys most at lunch?
A. His associative memory.            B. The delicious soup and sandwich.
C. The service by a beautiful waitress.    D. His sitting in an old wooden booth.
84. From the lunch bill to the hot coffee, we can see_______.
A. sister L’ s warm heart               B. financial woes everywhere
C. the way the author looks at the world 
D. indigent people’ s financial embarrassment
85. The doctor implies that they, as Sister L does, will_______.
A. continue their healing despite their financial troubles
B. expand their business despite tight budget
C. avoid financial embarrassment
D. treat more patients over the phone
Passage Six
Confronted with patient facing death, physicians may feel a sense of medical impotence and failure. Years of training and zeal to heal have focused on doing anything and everything to save the patient. Death is treated as the enemy. One might ask, "What use can I be if I cannot fix?" One may be tempted to withdraw. There may be no meaningful closure with a patient other than referral to home care or hospice.
Feelings evoked by a patient’s dying are also antithetical( 对立的) to the original "call" to medicine--the desire to make a difference in people’ s lives and the alleviation of pain and suffering. Over time these inner directives may have been obscured by the rigors of a pressured practice, not to mention the climate of malpractice litigation(诉讼 ) This threat necessitates obsessive attention to the details of intervention options, possibly at the cost of considering the needs of the whole person at hand.
So the moment when death raises its specter(恐惧) is a crossroads. Herein lies the opportunity for physicians to go beyond their conventional model of relating to patients. This is when the conventional therapeutic tools can be set aside in favor of the most powerful contribution of all: the physician’ s caring itself. The only requirement is a willingness to extend conscious listening and basic humanity to the dying patient. The simple act of visitation, of presence, of taking the trouble to witness the patient’s process can be in itself a potent healing affirmation--a sacramental(圣礼的) gesture received by the dying person who may be feeling helpless, diminished, and fearful that they have little to offer others. The patient may also fear that he or she has failed.
How meaningful it is to be told by my physicians that they are learning from me! I feel honored and joined by my physicians as we participate in these human, vulnerable, and mysterious moments at the end of my life. I and many dying persons would agree that beyond pain control, the three elements we most need are feeling cared about, being respected, and enjoining a sense of continuity, be it in relationships or in terms of spiritual awareness.
86. Facing a terminally-iii patient, physicians________.
A. have no right to withdraw            B. must save him or her at any cost
C. can do nothing but accept the failure    
D. can be caught in the dilemma of cure or care
87. During the pressured practice, the feeling evoked by a patient’ s dying_________.
A. can lead to a legal suit
B. are likely to be set aside
C. tend to be antithetical to the quality of life
D. urge the physician to save him or her by all means
88. According to the passage, the physician’s caring relates to_________.
A. the needs of the dying patient treated as a whole person
B. the acceptance of medical impotence and failure
C. the exploration of all the intervention options
D. the avoidance of malpractice litigation
89. What the dying patient needs most that makes him or her feel honored is- the physician’s__________.
A. willingness to perform the basic humane acts   
B. ability to alleviate pain effectively
C. powerful healing competence                 D. frankness and honesty
90. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage?
A. The Nature of Medicine.             B. Medical Impotence and Failure.
C. The Psychology of the Dying Patient.  
D. The Use of the Self as Medical Intervention.
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Paper Two
Part V  Writing (20 % )
Directions: In this part there is an essay in Chinese. Read it carefully and then write a summary of 200 words in English on the ANSWER SHEET. Make sure that your summary covers the major points of the passage.
手术与害怕
外科疾病的治疗,多采用手术方法。而手术对于患者来说,是一次重大的不幸事件。因此手术本身就称为一种强烈的心理刺激,使患者处于焦虑、抑郁、紧张、恐惧等一系列情绪状态之中。情绪应会引起一系列心理生理反应,促发与手术有关的心身症,如手术神经症、频发手术症、器官移植综合症等,以致严重影响手术的进行和手术治疗效果。
手术包括治疗性手术,如外伤后的清创缝合、阑尾切除术、肾脏移植术、心脏冠脉搭桥术等,以及诊断性手术,如剖腹探查、心导管检查、病理切片检查等,它们都是创伤性的治疗与诊断方法。手术常常导致疼痛、大量出血及组织的损伤。这种刺激,常会使患者的生理及心理两方面都处于紧张状态,特别是具有性格缺陷的患者,更易产生强烈的情绪反应,从而诱发心身症。如果医生能对其做一些解释与安慰,将会有效控制患者不良情绪的发展。
手术前患者强烈的情绪反应,可导致一系列的躯体反应,如心悸、气促、胸闷、出汗、失眠、血压升高、儿茶酚胺升高、交感神经兴奋等多种躯体反应:如果不作处理,势必影响手术的进行及效果,引起心身疾病或严重的精神障碍,还可诱发冠心病、脑血管疾病,造成手术意外。另外,由于情绪应激和手术创伤,引起促肾上腺皮质激素及皮质类固醇的分泌,会使免疫机制受到抑制,增加细菌感染的机会。
患者的情绪反应并不因手术的完成而终止,许多患者术后仍有强烈的情绪反应。术后的疼痛不适,身体活动不便,使患者情绪受到压抑,渴望他人给予情感上的关怀与支持。而医院单调的环境,手术后的恢复,以及对并发症的顾虑,可使患者情绪忧虑。此时家属、同事及医护人员的同情和怜悯,常使患者产生较强的依赖感。那些做过破坏性较强的手术,出现过严重并发症或被确诊为恶性肿瘤的患者常出现失望、抑郁的情绪。也有部分患者由于病痛被消除,常表现出愉快的情绪。
外科手术的情绪问题是可以预防及控制的。在手术前对患者进行心理情绪指导,学习情绪的自我调控方法,能有效控制情绪对手术治疗的影响。许多患者都是首次做手术,由于对医院环境及手术过程不熟悉,以及不实际、不正确的想象,常使患者感到恐惧,此时可用脱敏治疗法来帮助患者消除紧张,向患者讲述手术经过,也可播放一段类似手术的实况录像,让患者有一个直观的感受。对于那些公开暴露自己对手术恐惧,希望对手术有较多了解的患者,可让其反复观看同类录像,直到恐惧缓解为止。对于病情较重,情绪反应剧烈的患者可采用爱抚疗法。爱,有着异乎寻常的医疗效果,是消除情绪紧张、减轻思想负担的有效方法。美国洛杉矶医学院的专家们作了一次实验,它们对54位严重心率紊乱的男女病人进行观察,在每位手臂上安放一个心率测试仪,然后每天安排一位和蔼可亲的护士小姐三次来到病者床前,握住他们的手,象是给他们拿脉。并温柔亲切地同患者交谈,实验结果显示,这些情绪不宁,充满死亡恐惧的患者,在女护士的爱抚体贴的几分钟内,心率竞出现平稳及安定,取得了药物治疗难以达到的效果。
人对于抚摸有着强烈的要求,婴儿被母亲抚摸能获得“安全感”,成人时期,爱人的爱抚和抚摸,能产生良好的生理及心理效应,达到消除不良情绪的作用.

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