北京航空航天大学博士入学考试英语模拟试题一 - 英语真题 - 
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北京航空航天大学博士入学考试英语模拟试题一
PART I    Listening Comprehension (20 points) (略)
PART II   Reading Comprehension (30 points)
Directions: There are four passages in the part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them, there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and decide on the best choice. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center
Passage 1
Unless we spend money to spot and prevent asteroids(小行星) now, one might crash into Earth and destroy life as we know it, say some scientists.
Asteroids are bigger versions of the meteoroids(流星) that race across the night sky. Most orbit the sun far from Earth and don't threaten us. But there are also thousands whose orbits put them on a collision course with Earth.
Buy $ 40 million worth of new telescopes right now. Then spend $ 10 million a year for the next 25 years to locate most of the space rocks. By the time we spot a fatal one, the scientists say, we'll have a way to change its course.
Some scientists favor pushing asteroids off course with nuclear weapons. But the cost wouldn't be cheap.
Is it worth it? Two things experts consider when judging any risk are: 1) How likely the event is; and 2) How bad the consequences if the event occurs. Experts think an asteroid big enough to destroy lots of life might strike Earth once every 400, 000 years. Sounds pretty rare-but if one did fall, it would be the end of the world. "If we don't take care of these big asteroids, they'll take care of us," says one scientist. "It's that simple."
The cure, though, might be worse than the disease. Do we really want fleets of nuclear weapons sitting a-round on Earth? "The world has less to fear from doomsday (毁灭性的) rocks than from a great nuclear fleet set against them," said a New York Times article.
21. What does the passage say about asteroids and meteoroids?
A. They are heavenly bodies different in composition.
B. They are heavenly bodies similar in nature.
C. There are more asteroids than meteoroids.
D. Asteroids are more mysterious than meteoroids.
22. What do scientists say about the collision of an asteroid with Earth?
A. It is very unlikely but the danger exists.
B. Such a collision might occur once every 25 years.
C. Collisions of smaller asteroids with Earth occur more often than expected.
D. It's still too early to say whether such a collision might occur.
23. What do people think of the suggestion of using nuclear weapons to alter the course of asteroids?
A. It sounds practical but it may not solve the problem.
B. It may create more problems than it might solve.
C. It is a waste of money because a collision of asteroids with Earth is very unlikely.
D. Further research should be done before it is proved applicable.
24. We can conclude from the passage that _____.
A. while pushing asteroids off course nuclear weapons would destroy the world
B. asteroids racing across the night sky are likely to hit Earth in the near future
C. the worry about asteroids can be left to future generations since it is unlikely to happen in our lifetime
D. workable solutions still have to be found to prevent a collision of asteroids with Earth.
25. Which of the following best describes the author's tone in this passage?
A. Optimistic.        B. Critical.       C. Objective.            D. Arbitrary.
 
Passage 2
Believe it or not, optical illusion (错觉) can cut highway crashes.
Japan is a case in point. It has reduced automobile crashes on some roads by nearly 75 percent using a simple optical illusion. Bent stripes, called chevrons (人字形)painted on the roads make drivers think that they are driving faster than they really are, and thus drivers slow down.
Now the American Association Foundation for Traffic Safety in Washington D. C. is planning to repeat Japan's success. Starting next year, the foundation will paint chevrons and other patterns of stripes on selected roads around the country to test how well the patterns reduce highway crashes.
Excessive speed plays a major role in as much as one fifth of all fatal traffic accidents, according to the foundation. To help reduce those accidents, the foundation will conduct its tests in areas where speed-related hazards are the greatest-curves, exit slopes, traffic circles, and bridges. Some studies suggest that straight, horizontal bars painted across roads can initially cut the average speed of drivers in half. However, traffic often returns to full speed within months as drivers become used to seeing the painted bar.
Chevrons, scientists say, not only give drivers the impress ion that they are driving faster than they really are but also make a lane appear to be narrower. The result is a longer lasting reduction in highway speed and the number of traffic accidents.
26. The passage mainly discusses _____
A. a new way of highway speed control      B. a new pattern for painting highways
C. a new approach to training drivers        D. a new type of optical illusion
27. On roads painted with chevrons drivers tend to feel that ____
A. they should avoid speed-related hazards    B. they are driving in the wrong lane
C. they should slow down their speed       D. they are approaching the speed limit
28. The advantage of chevrons over straight, horizontal bars is that the former _____
A. can keep drivers awake                  B. can cut road accidents in half
C. will have a longer effect on drivers         D. will look more attractive
29. The American Association Foundation for Traffic Safety plans to _____
A. try out the Japanese method in certain areas
B. change the road signs across the country
C. replace straight, horizontal bars with chevrons
D. repeat the Japanese road patterns
30. What does the author say about straight, horizontal bars painted a cross roads?
A. They are falling out of use in the United States.
B. They tend to be ignored by drivers in a short period of time.
C. They are applicable only on broad roads.
D. They cannot be applied successfully to traffic circles.
 
Passage 3
There are a number of formats for reporting research, such as articles to appear in journals, reports ad-dressed to funding agencies, theses or dissertations as part of the requirements for university degrees, and papers to be presented at conferences. These formats differ from one another mostly in their purposes and the audiences whom they address. We will now briefly describe them.
The journal article is a way of reporting research for professional journals or edited collections. The re-search is reporting in a brief, yet informative way, focusing mostly on the main features of the research such as the purpose, review of the literature ( often referred to as "background" ), procedures used for carrying out the research accompanied by tables, charts, and graphs, and interpretations of the results ( often referred to as discussion).
The content and emphasis of the journal article will vary according to the intended readers (research or practitioners) and it is important for the researcher to be aware of the background and interest of the readers of the journal. Articles intended to be read by practitioners will emphasize the practical implications and recommendations of the research, while articles intended to be read by researchers will describe in detail the method used to collect data, the construction of data collection procedures, and the techniques used for analyzing the data. It is important for the novice researcher to be aware of the fact that articles submitted to journals go through a process of evaluation by experts who make a judgment and recommend whether they should be published or not.
The thesis or dissertation is a format for reporting research which graduate students write as part of fulfilling the requirements for an advanced academic degree. The student is expected to describe in great detail all the phases of the research so it can be examined and evaluated carefully by the reader. Thus the thesis or dissertation includes the purpose and significance of the study, the rationale, a thorough review of the literature, detailed information as to the research tools and the procedures involved in their development, a description of data analysis and the results, and an interpretation of the results in the form of conclusions, implications, and recommendation. This detailed description of the process of the research is needed to provide the professors with an indication of the student's ability to carry out research.
The conference paper is a way of reporting research at conferences, seminars and colloquia. At such meetings research papers are usually presented orally. They are similar to the research 'article since research is reported in a concise, yet informative way, focusing on the most essential elements of the research. Handouts and transparencies can also accompany the presentations. As with the research article, here too, the content and emphasis of the oral report will depend to a large extent on the type of audience present at the meeting, and whether they are researchers or practitioners.
31. The best title for this passage could be _______
A. Types of Research Reports             B. Types of Journal Articles
C. Writing of research Reports           D. Writing of Different Articles
32. The common aspect for the journal articles, theses and conference papers lies in that     
A. they are all for the practitioners        B. they are all to be read by researchers
C. they are all for being published        D. they are all forms of reporting research
33. We can distinguish those research reports from each other mainly through _____
A. their writing style and length          B. their aims and possible audiences
C. their presented places and time     D. their content and purposes
34. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in this, passage?
A. Both journal articles and conference papers are reported in a brief and informative way.
B. All the theses or dissertations and conference papers are reported in spoken languages.
C. Both the journal articles and conference papers are influenced greatly by the intended receivers.
D. The various formats of research reports may be presented in different ways.
35. How can a professor evaluate a student's capability of implementing the research?
A. By concentrating on the main factors like the purpose, background, procedures and discussion.
B. By emphasizing the practical implications and recommendations of the research.
C. By focusing on the detailed description of the process of the research such as the tools, procedures, the process of data analysis, the results, conclusions, etc.
D. By noticing the detailed method used to collect the data, the construction of the data collection procedures, the techniques for analyzing the date and results, etc.
 

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