北京航空航天大学2007年博士入学考试英语试题 - 英语真题 - 
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北京航空航天大学2007年博士入学考试英语试题
Part I  Listening Comprehension( 20 points )(略)
Part II  Reading Comprehension (30 points)
Directions: There are four passages in the part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them, there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and decide on the best choice.  Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center
Passage 1
    Scientists now tend to agree that the noise level for potential hearing loss begins at about 70 decibels. Some of them are very concerned because normal daily life often exposes people to noise levels of about 70 decibels even inside their homes. Cities have always been noisy, but noise is now spreading to areas that were quiet just a few years ago.
    Clearly, something must be done or noise will seriously and permanently maim the population. Fortunately, the knowledge and methods to control noise already exist. As a matter of fact, this is one instance where the knowledge of control methods exceeds the knowledge about the effects on human life and on the environment.
    There are two common means for control. The first is reducing noise at its source, and the second is changing the sound path by distance or by shielding.
    The second approach is being used more often today as people become more aware of the danger of noise. New building codes require better sound insulation in homes and apartments.More and more towns are passing zoning ordinances that try to segregate noisy factories or airports from residential areas. Sound-absorbent materials and construction designed to block sound paths are slowly coming into use in offices and homes. New highways are being built to redirect traffic noise up and away from nearby areas. Aircraft are increasingly being required to use reduced power flights around airports.
    There are many examples of available noise control methods that are not being used. More flexible building codes would permit the use of quieter kinds of plumbing pipes.Sound-absorbing materials can reduce the noise of motors and engines. Power generators can be quieted with baffles, exhaust silencers, and sound absorbers. Truck tires can be made with quieter treads. In many cases, the cost of building quieter machines is the same or only slightly higher than that of the current noisy ones. Even though the new equipment may cost more initially, it can prove more profitable in the long run. The new jumbo jets, for example, are quieter than the older ones, yet they are more powerful and carry twice as many passengers.
    All of these methods are only partial measures as noisy levels continue to rise. Most specialists in the field agree that much of the solution must come from eliminating some of the noise at its source, therefore saving through prevention the large costs of hearing loss.
21.The noise level for possible bearing loss begins at about      
     A.30 decibels               B.75 decibels      
C.100 decibels               D.none of the above
22.Jet pilots are being advised to land        
A.on longer runways        B. from nearby areas
C.after dark              D. with reduced power
23.How many practical means for controlling noise does the author present?
     A.one                B.two           C.three           D.four
24.The reader can assume that airport of the future will      
     A.have runways in a north-south pattern
     B.be located in unpopulated areas
     C.be required to warn passengers of high noise levels
     D.in nearby areas
25.Jumbo jets are mentioned as examples of      
     A.efficient transportation with low levels of noise
     B.vehicles that cause serious air pollution
     C.scientific advances that do more harm than good
     D.quieter and older vehicle
Passage 2
    Every time a person eats something he makes a nutritional decision. He accepts or rejects the food available to him at home for meals or snacks. Or he selects food for himself at many places in the community, such as supermarkets, drive-ins, restaurants, and food counters in drugstores. These selections make a difference in how an individual looks, how he feels, and how well he can work and play.
    When a good assortment of food in appropriate amounts is selected and eaten, the consequences are more likely to be a desirable level of health and enough energy to allow one to be as active as one needs and wants to be. When choices are less than desirable, the consequences are likely to be poor health or limited energy or both.
    Studies of diets of individuals in the United States show that food selection is a highly individual matter, even among young children. Furthermore, far too many individuals of all ages are making poor choices day after day and are either now living with the consequences or will be in the future.
    Nutritionists and workers in allied professions have been concerned about helping people learn to select and enjoy a wide variety of food combinations that can add up to a good diet.
    Most people believe that they are well fed--that the choices they make are good ones. After all, they are not really sick, neither are they hungry. However, their nutrition is usually poor in one respect or another. Milk and milk products, such as cheeses, ice cream or milk, buttermilk, and yogurt, are often slighted. Then people may skip many fruits and vegetables, particularly those that are good sources of vitamins A and C. These include dark green, leafy vegetables; deep yellow vegetables; and citrus fruits and vegetables, 'such as cabbage, tomatoes, and green peppers.
    Every American has the right to choose to be uniformed about nutrition as well as to be informed. If a person believes that she is well fed, attitudes, habits, and information cannot be forced upon her.
    There are life situations, however, that tend to cause an individual to want to know how to make the best choices. For example, a young couple is starting a family and must prepare food for young children.
26.Food preference in America is        
     A. culturally oriented               B. inherited 
C. individualistic                 D. according to ages
27.Good amounts of vitamin A can be found in        
     A. celery        B. banana              C. milk           D. cabbage
28.According to the author, nutritionists are concerned with         
     A. improving the vitamin content of processed foods
     B. restricting the manufacture of high cholesterol foods
      C. informing the public about wholesome foods
      D. helping people enjoying uninformed about nutrition
29.Some people judge their nutrition by the         
     A. status of their health                B.grocery stores where they shop
     C. amount of protein in their diets        D.food they took
30.The author advocates         
     A. requiring high school students to take courses on nutrition
      B. making information on nutrition available to the public
     C. forcing food manufacturers to list ingredients on packages
     D. people has the right to choose food
 
Passage 3
    Almost since the beginning of mankind, governments have been recording the numbers of their populace. The first known census report took place in 3800 B. C. in Babylonia for the purpose of deciding who should pay taxes. As time went by, governments found other, more creative uses for knowing their numbers. Egyptian King Ramses II
used the census not only to determine who should pay taxes, but also to figure out how to divide land for fanning and to decide who could provide manpower for various government projects. Those new ideas came about in the mid-1200s--B. C..
    William the Conqueror brought the concept of census taking to England in 1085. All landowners were required to name their holdings for the purpose of taxation.  By the fifteenth century, Tudor kings found a new twist to the Egyptians' use of the census. They too used the population count as a means of getting ready manpower for important government projects namely, replenishing troops in the ongoing battles in western Europe.
    A rebellious tide swept over England, however, in the mid-17OOs. A bill to authorize a regular census was defeated in Parliament on the grounds that it would give valuable information to England' s enemies. But the tide of rebellion soon turned ,and in 1800 England established its first regular census.
    Meanwhile the United States had already had an ongoing census for ten years. It was authorized in the Constitution for the purpose of deciding how many members of Congress would be needed for a fair representation of the American people. The constitutional article also established that the census would be taken in 1790 and every ten years thereafter. And so it has.
    Since its beginning, the American census has gone through many changes. Today the census provides more than a count of the people who live here. It takes polls on transportation, economic planning, and agriculture. The census also provides data for most government agency statistics, such as the unemployment rate.
    Counting costs have risen since 1790. The government spent about a penny per person to count post-Revolutionary Americans. Today the census costs $ 250 million-more than a dollar per person. That' s a long way since 3800

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